In this grammar section I will explain the indefinite and definite personal pronouns as well as show examples of indefinite and definite pronoun and verb usage (indefinite and definite sentences).
Before I begin to show you examples though you first need to know about the Noun, Pronoun and Personal Pronoun; if you do not know about them already of course.
A noun is a word that identifies a person (their name, title, gender or class), an animal, a place (i.e. a landmark, building, here or there), a thing (i.e. furniture, words or objects) or ideas (i.e. a theory or rule).
A pronoun is a word or phrase that may be substituted for a noun or noun phrase. A pronoun can basically do everything that a noun can do - It can act as a subject, direct object, indirect object, object of the preposition and much more. A pronoun can also replace certain adverbs, adjectives and other pronouns.
Without pronouns we would have to keep on repeating nouns, making speech and writing repetitive. Example without pronouns: John said do this, John said do that and John said other things too. With pronouns: John said do this, HE also said do that and other things too. Examples of the pronoun are: He, She, They, It, We and Who.
A personal pronoun is just a type of pronoun - There are many types of pronoun in a language such as personal pronoun, indefinite pronoun and possessive pronoun and in the Hungarian language the main personal pronouns are I, YOU, HE/SHE, WE, YOU (plural) and THEY; although they are not used that much simply because of the way the Hungarian language suffixes a word (or sentence) to include or refer to a personal pronoun. Either way, it is better to know the Hungarian personal pronouns because they are used to clarify who is being spoken to or about for example.
Below is a list of personal pronouns with their indefinite and definite forms.....
|Person Pronouns||Indefinate Verb
(Back - Short Vowel)
(Front - Long Vowel)
(Back - Short Vowel)
(Front - Long Vowel)
.....and here are examples of the verb Ért (Understand) using their indefinite and definite forms.
|Person Pronouns||Indefinate Verb (Front - Long)||Definate Verb (Front - Long)||Meaning|
|I||Én||Ain||Értek (Ear-Tek)||Értem (Ear-Tem)||I Understand|
|You||Te||Teh||Értesz (Ear-Tess)||Érted (Ear-Ted)||You Understand|
|He/She/It||Ő||Ur||Érti (Ear-Tea)||He/She/It Understands|
|We||Mi||Mih||Értünk (Ear-Toonk)||Értjük (Ear-Chook)||We Understand|
|You (Plural)||Ti||Tih||Értetek (Ear-Teh-Tek)||Értitek (Ear-Tea-Tek)||You Understand|
|They||Ők||Urk||Értenek (Ear-Teh-Neck)||Értik (Ear-Tick)||They Understand|
As an example of the above: Ért is the verb UNDERSTAND and because the É of Ért is a front, long, vowel, it needs the front indefinite suffix EK added to it when expressing the sentence (indefinite sentence) I UNDERSTAND (ÉRTEK). You do not need to say ÉN ÉRTEK because the EK suffix already states the personal pronoun I.
An example of using Értek (indefinite) would be I UNDERSTAND COMPUTERS (ÉRTEK A SZÁMÍTÓGÉPHEZ) and an example of using Értem (definite) would be I DO NOT UNDERSTAND WHAT YOU ARE SAYING (NEM ÉRTEM MIT MONDASZ).
Another example would be FUT - Fut is the verb RUN and because the U of Fut is a back, short, vowel, it needs the back indefinite suffix OK added to it when expressing the sentence (indefinite sentence) I RUN (FUTOK). You do not need to say ÉN FUTOK because the OK suffix already states the personal pronoun I.
An example of using Futok (indefinite) would be I RUN EVERYDAY (MINDEN NOP FUTOK) and an example of using Futom (definite) would be I RUN THE MARATHON (LEFUTOM A MARATON).
Another example would be OLVAS - Olvas is the verb READ and because the O and A of Olvas are both back, short, vowels, Olvas needs the back definite suffix OM added to it when expressing the sentence (definite sentence) I AM READING (OLVASOM). You do not need to say ÉN OLVASOM because the OM suffix already states the personal pronoun I.
An example of using Olvasok (indefinite) would be I AM READING A BOOK (OLVASOK EGY KÖNYVET) and an example of using Olvasom (definite) would be I AM READING THE NEWSPAPER (OLVASOM AZ ÚJSÁGOT).
Indefinite Pronoun means a pronoun that does not refer to any person, amount, or thing in particular. Examples: Akárki (Anyone/Whoever), Akármi (Whatever), Valami (Something), Valaki (Somebody/Someone) and Némely (Some).
An Indefinite Sentence is when the sentence does not mention a direct object or thing. Examples: I Am Reading A Book (Olvasok Egy Könyvet). I Want To Eat Something (Akarok Enni Valamit). In this case those sentences are both indefinite - Although A BOOK was mentioned, it was a book (any book, not a specific book). And the latter sentence mentioned SOMETHING, but not anything specifically.
Definite Pronoun means a pronoun that does refer to a person, amount, or thing in particular. You normally need a definite article such as THE (AZ).
A Definite Sentence is when the sentence does mention a direct object or specific thing. Examples: I Am Reading The Newspaper (Olvasom Az Újságot). I Want To Eat A Piece Of The Pizza (Akarok Enni Egy Selet Pizzát). In this case those sentences are both definite - THE NEWSPAPER (a specific newspaper) was mentioned. And THE PIZZA (a specific pizza) with A PIECE (a specific amount) was mentioned.